Boehmer E, Crossley D. Objective interpretation of dental disease in rabbits, guinea pigs and chinchillas. The buccal surfaces of the mandibular cheek teeth wear more quickly than the lingual aspects. Otherwise, their teeth will be overgrown if they do not have fibrous diets. There is no one objective way to tell if a small mammal is feeling pain, as individual animals display different clinical signs. (C) Four maxillary incisors, including the 2 smaller peg teeth situated directly behind the larger set of incisors, and 2 mandibular incisors. Healthy incisors will be white and cylindrical, with a horizontal, chisel-shaped edge. They continually grow. These signs may include anorexia, lethargy, lameness, reduced grooming, abnormal vocalizations, aggression when usually docile, or any deviation from normal behavior.3 Many small mammals in pain hide under bedding or substrate. The incisors are examined by pulling the lower lip down with the thumb and forefinger of one hand while using the thumb and forefinger of other hand to pull the upper lip up and aside. Pain Assessment in Small Mammals Sarah Kolb, RVT, VTS (Clinical Practice–Exotic Companion Animals) Accessed October 2016. Guinea pigs and rodents may display piloerection. She is a member of the National Association of Veterinary Technicians in America and International Association of Animal Behavior Consultants. By inserting the speculum or cone through the diastema into the oral cavity, the occlusal surface of the cheek teeth may be briefly examined, although the viewing window is limited. Use tape or foam wedges on either side of the head to prevent rotation if necessary. The lack of canine teeth creates an elongated diastema between the incisors and premolars. We have included the below rabbit teeth diagram (images and pictures) to help you see how the incisors, premolars, and molars are placed on these animals’ upper and lower jaws. The roots of anatomically normal maxillary cheek teeth will not extend past this line. The Omilteme cottontail is heterodont with a total of 28 teeth. Therefore, these animals must eat a lot of these grasses for survival. While the jaw is in resting position, upper and lower premolars and molars do not touch since the lower jaw is narrower than the upper one (anisognathism). Two yellow lines (C) highlight the medial cortex of the mandible, which should appear straight, smooth, and symmetric. Rabbits do not have canine teeth. Other animals, frequently rodents, spend more time than normal curled up and may have bulging eyes. In lagomorphs, the location of the two smaller rudimentary maxillary incisors (peg teeth) directly caudal to the two large grooved incisors is a double-row dentition. As we have mentioned, they are elodont (grow continuously) and are aradicular (open-rooted). Pollock C. Pain management in small mammals. Created by Meks. References However, the cheek ones (premolars and molars) grow at a slower rate with the mandibular ones growing at about 3-4 mm a month while the maxillary erupts much slower [1] than mandibular ones.eval(ez_write_tag([[336,280],'petsmentor_com-box-4','ezslot_16',129,'0','0'])); One research[2] has placed the growth rate at 1.9mm per week and 2.2mm per week for upper and lower incisors respectively while premolars at 2.14 mm per week with a plus or minus margin of 0.28 mm per week. These types of teeth serve various functions such as cutting up, crushing, tearing and shredding the food. Place the patient in dorsal recumbency. Rabbits have six unpigmented incisor teeth. Also, the auxiliary incisors prevent the lower incisors from injuring the palate. A thorough understanding of normal oral anatomy and physiology is necessary for prevention and treatment of dental disease in rabbits. Pull front limbs caudally and extend the head. Dental attrition of rabbit cheek teeth. What is the deciduous dental formula for rabbits? Mammals have teeth of different sizes and shapes, a condition known as heterodonty, allowing different teeth to be specialized for different tasks. To help handle these kinds of foods, their teeth are functionally and anatomically adapted. The dental formula of the rabbit is 2 (I 2/1, C 0/0, PM 3/2, M 3/3) =28. Dental disease is diagnosed by obtaining a thorough patient history and by performing a physical examination and endoscopic oral examination with the patient under sedation, blood analysis, and radiography.1, A thorough history should be obtained for every patient. Rodents have enlarged chewing muscles that allow their jaw to work in a vertical, forward and backward motion. The 2 in the front of the formula indicates the left and right side of the mouth. Rotate the patient’s head 40˚ away from the table. The roots of the maxillary cheek teeth are in close proximity to the periorbital space. History and husbandry information about the patient should be obtained from the owner using open-ended questioning techniques upon arrival at the veterinary clinic. In a normal, healthy rabbit, the teeth wear down _____ mm per week. The palatal-lingual aspect of the maxillary cheek teeth wear more than the buccal aspects of these teeth. Manicinelli E. Recognising and managing pain in small mammals and exotics. Congenital causes are conditions present at birth. Treatment of dental disease consists of returning teeth to their normal length, restoring normal occlusion, extracting diseased teeth, and treating associated abscesses. Common dentistry equipment. International Association for the Study of Pain. If pellets are fed, they should be timothy hay based, not alfalfa based.5 Pellets require a less desirable chewing motion of the jaw, not the grinding motion required for fibrous grasses and hays.5 Mixed-cereal foods are also not recommended because it is impossible to prevent rabbits from selectively feeding.5, In addition to proper nutrition practices, owners can be educated about acquiring their pet rabbits from breeding stock without a history of dental disease in their lineage. Diagnosis and treatment of dental disease in pet rabbits. • List the equipment needed for dental care of rodents, lagomorphs, and ferrets. FIGURE 4. Observation of the patient during the interview or in a quiet room before handling may reveal signs of pain or discomfort. The veterinary technician oath states, “I solemnly dedicate myself to aiding animals and society by providing excellent care and services for animals, by alleviating animal suffering, and promoting public health.”5 Veterinary technicians play an integral role in recognizing pain in patients and act as patient advocates to alleviate pain and suffering in all animals. The occlusal surface (surface for chewing) of the mandibular teeth curves towards the cheeks (curve buccally) while the one for maxillary teeth curves towards the tongue (curve lingually). A black line (A) extends from the tip of the nasal bone to the occipital protuberance. Rabbits do have a deciduous dentition, but this is of no clinical signifi cance as it is shed within the fi rst few days after birth. The goals of treatment are to return teeth to their normal anatomy and to control inflammation and infection, thereby returning the teeth to normal function. The dental formula is 2 0 3 3 / 1 0 2 3 for incisors, canine, premolar and molars in … A cursory examination of the cheek teeth may be performed without sedation by using a bivalve nasal speculum or an otoscope cone. B. Spatulas. Yes. FIGURE 5. Yes. Accessed October 2016. The deciduous incisors will begin to shed just before or immediately after birth. Rabbits have 2 on top and one on the bottom jaw. The tooth roots, jawbone, periodontium, nasolacrimal canal, and intra-alveolar portion of the teeth can only be examined radiographically. The roots of anatomically normal maxillary cheek teeth will not extend past this line. If a small mammal is unable to mask clinical signs of pain and discomfort, it should be considered severely debilitated. Another advantage of the endoscope is the ability to take pictures, allowing owners and other members of the veterinary team to see the oral cavity.1, Blood analysis is indicated if systemic disease is suspected or anesthesia is required for a dental procedure.5. They are anatomically similar, and it is not easy to differentiate them. Rabbit owners should be instructed to feed unlimited high-fiber foods.3,5 Grass, a good-quality timothy hay, and fibrous, green, leafy vegetables are favorable foods that are high in fiber and encourage the grinding motions of the jaw that benefit attrition of the teeth.7 Rabbits require a diet that provides enough calcium for sufficient mineralization of their continually growing teeth and surrounding bone structures, but not so much calcium that urinary tract disease is a risk.5 The ideal amount of dietary calcium for a rabbit is 0.5% to 1.0%.5, Barn-dried hay may not contain as much vitamin D as sun-dried hays.5 Alfalfa hay is very high in calcium.7 It is a good choice for rapidly growing young rabbits but should not be fed as a sole source of hay for adult rabbits.5 If possible, rabbits should be allowed to graze outside on a variety of grasses and weeds while basking in the sun, which helps prevent a vitamin D deficiency.5, Pellets are not a necessary part of a rabbit’s diet. The dental formula of rabbit is 2 (I2/1 C0/0 PM3/2 M3/3). Finally, the incisors help in mainly slicing food laterally and they are set in such a way that while jaws are at rest, the lower incisors are placed just behind the upper ones in contact with the peg teeth. The I stands for incisor teeth. okvta.org/veterinary-technicians-oath.html. Bruxism, a loud tooth grinding, is a common clinical sign of pain in small mammals. The article you have read is no longer available for 1 hour of continuing education credit. The interview process also allows time for the animal to become accustomed to the veterinary clinic setting. These pets have a total of six unpigmented incisors. This study is linked to diets given. Once they have sensed their food, they use their prehensile lips to grasp the food before incisors cuts or bites it and moves it to premolars and molars using their tongue for grinding, chewing or mastication. They have 6 incisor teeth and 22 cheek teeth (molars and premolars). Consequently, dental problems, if not treated, often lead to more generalized illness. Accessed October 2016. As prey species, small mammals mask signs of illness and injury, especially when in an unfamiliar environment. Systemic disease that causes any change in a rabbit’s normal diet and eating patterns may lead to dental disease.1–4 A systemic disease characterized by altered calcium levels may result in changes in jawbones and altered tooth placement.3,5, Improper nutrition is the most common cause of dental disease in pet rabbits.3 Improper food items prevent normal tooth wear, eventually leading to dental disease.3,5. The animal may be less active or even completely immobile. If you did not know or you assumed that they have 32 teeth like human beings, the truth is that an adult rabbit has 28 teeth forming a natural curve. What is the difference between the deciduous and adult dental formula of rabbits? Dental formula of rabbit is (A) (2/1) (0/0) (3/2) (3/3) (B) (2/1) (1/0) (3/2) (3/3) (C) (2/1) (0/0) (2/2) (3/3) (D) (1/1) (3/2) (0/0) (3/3). Another black line (B) extends from the lateral margin of the mandibular incisors to the lateral wall of the tympanic bulla on the opposite side. These animals do not have canines. A. Molar cutters. www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/digestion/pregastric/rabbitpage.html Check Ans Rabbit mouths exhibit anisognathism, which means that their lower jaw is narrow when compared to the upper. Masses or swellings palpated along the ventral mandible could be an indication of. Crown height reduction can often be curative in the beginning stages of dental disease when accompanied by diet correction and other preventive measures.1–3 However, in cases of moderate to severe dental disease, crown height reduction procedures will need to be performed repeatedly.1-3 Overgrown incisors or cheek teeth should be trimmed using a dental bur or trimming forceps (FIGURE 6A) designed specifically for crown reduction.1-3 Nail trimmers, rongeurs, and other manual cutting tools should never be used to perform crown height reduction.2,3 Root damage, tooth fractures or splinters, and abnormal regrowth are likely to occur when using improper equipment.2,3 Crown reduction performed without sedation or anesthesia is difficult and often done blindly, resulting in missed sharp points or spurs and injury to the gums, cheeks, or tongue.1-3 Rabbits with moderate to severe dental disease should be anesthetized, allowing crown reduction and reshaping to be performed with a low-speed dental bur while protecting soft tissues with bur guards and dental spatulas.1–3 (FIGURE 6B), Tooth extraction with the patient under general anesthesia is indicated for any tooth that is loose, infected/abscessed, fractured, or severely maloccluded.2 Extractions can be performed intraorally or extraorally, depending on the difficulty of the extraction based on the accessibility of the diseased tooth and the size of the patient.2 Tabletop mouth-gag positioners, oral speculums, cheek dilators, spatulas, a low- to high-speed dental handpiece with a cheek guard, dental burs, and Crossley incisor and molar luxators are specialized equipment used to assist in positioning and tooth extraction (FIGURE 6).2,6 Analgesia and nutritional support must be provided after surgery to any patient undergoing a tooth extraction procedure.6, Abscesses on a rabbit’s head or jaw are often associated with the periapical area of an infected incisor or cheek tooth.1 In rabbits, mandibular abscesses are more common than maxillary abscesses.1 Often, abscesses present as palpable masses. Rabbits do not have canine teeth.1–4 Instead, there is a space between the incisors and premolars called the diastema (FIGURE 1).1–5 The premolars and molars are anatomically identical, making differentiation of each tooth challenging.2 Thus, the premolars and molars are simply called the cheek teeth.2 The dental formula for a rabbit is I2/1, C0/0, P3/2, and M3/3, for a total of 28 teeth.1–5, Rabbit teeth are cylindrical and have a natural curve as they grow.1,5 The occlusal surface of the maxillary cheek teeth curves buccally, and the occlusal surface of the mandibular cheek teeth curves lingually.1 They are aradicular; that is, both the incisors and the cheek teeth have open apices, never forming true tooth roots.1 Rabbit teeth are also elodont, meaning that they continually grow throughout the life of the rabbit.1 Germinal tissue, located at the apices of the teeth, continuously forms enamel to cover each tooth as the teeth constantly grow.3 Because of this, there is no anatomic difference in the tooth above or below the gum line.3 The enamel is free of pigment, resulting in white teeth.1, Rabbits have a blind spot directly in front of their mouth, so they rely on sensitive vibrissae on their lips to find food.4 Food items are grasped with prehensile lips, bitten off or chopped with the incisors, and moved to the cheek teeth by the tongue.4,5 Occlusal surfaces of the cheek teeth are irregular, providing a rough surface for grinding coarse, fibrous material. Various species and individuals have different pain responses and pain tolerance.4 Rats have a harderian gland that secretes red, porphyrin tears when they are ill or stressed, giving the appearance of bleeding eyes. A black line (A) extends from the lateral margin of the mandibular incisors to the medial margin of the mandibular ramus on the same side. Demonstration of the use of a bivalve nasal speculum during an oral examination on a rabbit. Rotate the patient’s head 40˚ away from the table. ... Eastern Cottontail Rabbit (Sylviagus floridanus) I 2/1 C 0/0 P 3/2 M 3/3=28 Swamp Rabbit (Sylvilagus aquaticus) Repeat with the patient in lateral position on the opposite side. As with an otoscope cone or bivalve nasal speculum, the endoscope does not allow a thorough evaluation of the cheek teeth in an awake patient. The ventral lower jaw should be horizontal to the table top. Recognizing and assessing pain in small mammals can be challenging. Since the patient will most likely be masking any signs of illness or discomfort, information obtained from the owner about how the animal has been acting in its normal environment will be helpful. That is, the number, type, and morpho-physiology (that is, the relationship between the shape and form of the tooth in question and its inferred function) of the teeth of an animal. Place the patient in dorsal recumbency. Use foam or rolled hand towels to support the neck of the patient and tilt the patient’s nose toward the table top, achieving a ventrodorsal position. The dental formula is 2.0.3.3 1.0.2.3. A yellow line (C) highlights the mandibular cortical bone. F. Dental burs. Growing rabbits are especially susceptible to congenital malocclusions and metabolic bone disease if fed inappropriate, low-calcium food items early in life.5. Changes to these structures account for 80% of dental disease.1 Radiographs also provide the veterinarian with information on treatment options and long-term prognosis. Guinea pigs and rodents may display piloerection. The lateral and dorsal surfaces of the cheek teeth are difficult or impossible to evaluate in this fashion, and small dental lesions are easily missed.1, An endoscope may also be used to view the cheek teeth. 2001. These patients require anesthesia to perform a thorough, stress-free oral examination. The Veterinary Technician’s Oath. BOX 1 Positioning Guidelines for Dental Radiography in Rabbits7,8 Can Rabbits Eat Nuts Including Monkey Nuts? Therefore, you need to ensure you include enough of the fibrous foods to your bunny’s diet. Other animals, frequently rodents, spend more time than normal curled up and may have bulging eyes. To compensate for the wearing down, all their permanent teeth are termed as eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'petsmentor_com-medrectangle-4','ezslot_2',110,'0','0']));elodont, i.e., they are ever-growing with open roots, i.e., they have open apices that do not form true roots (they are aradicular). Dental Anatomy. Two yellow lines (C) highlight the medial cortex of the mandible, which should appear straight, smooth, and symmetric. Causes of dental disease are categorized as congenital or acquired. Congenital causes include prognathism, brachygnathism, and other jaw malformations.2 For example, a malformation of the incisors may cause improper wear of the cheek teeth, eventually leading to the development of sharp points and overgrowth of the cheek teeth. Laterolateral https://petsmentor.com/rabbits/rabbit-teeth-dental-formula-anatomy-and-growth Therefore a baby rabbit has a total of 16 deciduous teeth with the dental formula is 2 (2/1  0/0 3/2). POSITIONING GUIDELINES Cheek teeth should not extend outside of these reference lines. Pull the front legs caudally. Place the patient in lateral recumbency. If applicable, position the affected side nearest to the cassette. There is no one objective way to tell if a small mammal is feeling pain, as individual animals display different clinical signs. We will answer that shortly. Various species and individuals have different pain responses and pain tolerance.4 Rats have a harderian gland that secretes red, porphyrin tears when they are ill or stressed, giving the appearance of bleeding eyes. An increase in the frequency and depth of respirations or rapid, shallow breathing is also a sign of distress. D. Mouth gag and cheek dilators. While checking and caring for your rabbit’s teeth, a dental chart may be handy. 1–5 The premolars and molars are anatomically identical, making differentiation of each tooth challenging. 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