[15], All three ships of the class entered service with the French Navy in 1916. As an able military leader, Constantine took advantage of civil war in the Muslim world to make limited offensives on the Arab frontier. As the position of emperor was in theory, and sometimes in practise, elective rather than strictly hereditary, a ruling emperor would often associate a son or other chosen successor with himself as a co-emperor to ensure the eventual succession. Basileus (řecky βασιλεύς, Βασίλιας) nebo taky Basiliás je řecký titul, jehož význam se v různých historických epochách proměňoval. With this eastern frontier secure, he undertook repeated campaigns against the Bulgars in the Balkans. The four rearmost 138 mm guns were removed during this refit, along with the 75 mm guns, which were replaced with eight 75 mm mle 1922 anti-aircraft guns. In 1919, Bretagne was equipped with a heavy tripod mast; Provence and Lorraine were given tripod masts in the early 1920s. Kataphractoi get the salt! On his father's death, Constantine succeeded as sole emperor on 18 June 741. Nika Basileus Konstantinos… [10] Provence had her four forward 138 mm guns removed in 1919, and was equipped similarly to Bretagne. Other names that Konstantinos uses includes Gus V Boules. During World War I, a pair of 75 mm (3.0 in) guns were added. [24], By the end of Constantine's reign, iconoclasm had gone as far as to brand relics and prayers to the saints as heretical, or at least highly questionable. Ο Κωνσταντίνος Β΄ (2 Ιουνίου 1940, Αθήνα) ήταν βασιλιάς της Ελλάδας από το 1964 έως το 1973, οπότε με δημοψήφισμα καταργήθηκε η μοναρχία και κηρύχθηκε έκπτωτη η δυναστεία από τη Χούντα των Συνταγματαρχών. The Roman cause, the restoring of the old empire, was a divinely inspired mission. [11], The Bretagnes were provided with 4.57-metre (15.0 ft) Barr and Stroud rangefinders. [9] This provided a top speed of 20 knots (37 km/h; 23 mph). [66][67][68], All surviving contemporary and later Byzantine histories covering the reign of Constantine were written by iconodules. Religious strife and controversy was a prominent feature of his reign. Text (6 lines) Reverse. Basileos Skleros, Magistros. [42], In 746, profiting by the unstable conditions in the Umayyad Caliphate, which was falling apart under Marwan II, Constantine invaded Syria and captured Germanikeia (modern Marash, his father's birthplace), and he recaptured the island of Cyprus. Eräänä syynä ikoneja vastustavan kannan syntyyn oli islamin nousu ja arabien menestyksekkäät valloitukset : bysanttilaiset saattoivat ajatella kuvia vastustaneiden muslimien tekevän siis jotakin oikein. (2017) "The Orient Express: Abbot John's Rapid trip from Constantinople to Ravenna c. AD 700", in, Treadgold, W.T. Konstantinos IX. The approval of a petition to promulgate a manumission law in 1236[1] by Basileus Konstantinos XI created a large section of population willing to establish new colonies in the mainland. [20] At the outbreak of World War II in September 1939, Bretagne and Provence were based in Toulon with the 2nd Squadron, while Lorraine was assigned to the Atlantic Squadron. [2] At the designed load, the ships displaced 23,936 metric tons (23,558 long tons), and at full combat load, this increased to 26,000 metric tons (26,000 long tons). [28][29][30], Constantine carried forward the administrative and fiscal reforms initiated by his father Leo III. Sear 1830, DOC 3, Sommer 48.3. Basileus Konstantinos XI 1455 - 1476 The Reclamation of Athens With Greek authority restored in Greece, the Italian rule of Athens quickly grew unpopular. They were the last American pre-dreadnoughts, considered at the time somewhat hybrid ships, not monocaliber but with a powerful secondary artillery, and yet still slow pre-dreadnoughts. [61][62][63], Constantine V was a highly capable ruler, continuing the reforms – fiscal, administrative and military – of his father. Missed the post - no can do, Incapable fucks with doing anything at all. [24] Bretagne was hit by at least four 15 in (380 mm) shells from HMS Hood, Resolution and Valiant and exploded, killing the vast majority of her crew. Beloved son of the late Nicholas and Yolanda … In the hippodrome he organised the pairing of numerous monks and nuns in forced marriage, publicly ridiculing their vows of chastity. (eds. In 747 his fleet destroyed the Arab fleet off Cyprus. Lorraine followed at the Ateliers et Chantiers de la Loire shipyard in St. Nazaire almost six months later on 7 November 1912. Basileus Rhomai Alexius V Doukas Murtzuphlos was the son in law of Alexius III nike zoom vapor carbon fly td football cleats Angelus.1 He was born circa 1170. Before their expansion, the vestigial Scholae and the other guards units presumably contained few useful soldiers, therefore Constantine must have incorporated former thematic soldiers into his new formation. 5, 'Constantine V', paragraph 7, Bury, pp. Lichačev, Molivdovuly Grečeskogo Vostoka, ed. El emperador bizantino, Basileus Konstantinos V de la casa Isauros, tiene una habilidad marcial aceptable (> 15), y es de otra manera un gobernante media. Konstantinos IX Monomakhoksen ja keisarinna Zoen ympäröimänä. was born circa 840. Following a disastrous defeat of the Byzantines by the Bulgarian Khan Krum in 811 at the Battle of Pliska, troops of the tagmata broke into Constantine's tomb and implored the dead emperor to lead them once more. 1 Kormisosh of Bulgaria raided as far as the Anastasian Wall (the outermost defence of the approaches to Constantinople) but was defeated in battle by Constantine, who inaugurated a series of nine successful campaigns against the Bulgarians in the next year, scoring a victory over Kormisosh's successor Vinekh at Marcellae. Bà được Hoàng đế Konstantinos V đưa đến Constantinoplis vào ngày 1 tháng 11 năm 769 và kết hôn với con trai của ông là Leo IV vào ngày 17 tháng 12. Obverse. He associated only his eldest son, Leo, with the throne as co-emperor, but gave his younger sons the titles of caesar for the more senior in age and nobelissimos for the more junior. The Third Volantene War began in 1207, shortly after the coronation of Konstantinos XI Komnenos as Basileus. The upper and lower decks were both 40 mm thick. This influx of settlers, allied to an active re-fortification of the border, caused concern to the Empire's northern neighbour, Bulgaria, leading the two states to clash in 755. [41], With the impetus of having fathered numerous offspring, Constantine codified the court titles given to members of the imperial family. (Artabasdus) 6 Jun 751 - … 'To surrender the city to you is beyond my authority or anyone else's who lives in it, for all of us, after taking the mutual decision, shall die of our own free will without trying to save our lives.' However, the hostile reaction of the Roman Church and the Italian people to iconoclasm had probably doomed imperial influence in central Italy, regardless of any possible military intervention. Repeated campaigns against the Bulgarians, Angold, Ch. The class was built to a design smaller than other American battleships as the result of a limit on displacement imposed by Congress as part of an effort to constrain costs. Basiléus Alpha(α) Fairway Wood Shaft $ 420.00 $ … The first three ships were to be laid down in 1912. His reign saw a consolidation of Byzantine security from external threats. Iconodule writers applied to Constantine the derogatory epithet Kopronymos ("dung-named", from kopros, meaning "faeces" or "animal dung", and onoma, "name"). At this time, four 100 mm (3.9 in) Model M1930 guns were added, along with two of the 13.2 mm quadruple mounts. Cedrenus records that Emperor Konstantinos VIII, after his accession (in 1025), sent "Romani Sclyri filio, patricio Basilio" against "Prusianum Bulgarorum magistrum ac bucellariorum præfectum"[1449]. [8] The turrets were mounted all on the centerline, with two in a superfiring pair forward of the conning tower, one amidships between the two funnels, and two superfiring aft of the rear superstructure. Riccardo Polosa Professore Ordinario di Medicina Interna, Università degli studi di Catania Verified email at unict.it. . With this eastern frontier secure, he undertook repeated campaigns against the Bulgars in the Balkans. the King over the Kingdom of the heavens (God). In August 720, at two years of age, he was associated with his father on the throne, and appointed co-emperor. In March–May 1944, the aircraft installation was removed. Patriarch Constantine II of Constantinople was implicated and deposed from office, and the following year he was tortured and beheaded. Konstantinos V‎ (2 C, 1 P, 4 F) ... Michael V‎ (5 F) Michael VI Stratiotikos‎ (3 F) Michael VII Doukas‎ (22 F) Michael VIII Palaiologos‎ (1 P, 17 F) Konstantinos, basileus no. [71], By his first wife, Tzitzak ("Irene of Khazaria"), Constantine V had one son:[72]. In 1931–1934, she received the same eight 75 mm guns as Bretagne did, and in 1940, three quadruple mounts of 13.2 mm guns were fitted. [33] Being largely based at or near the capital, the tagmata were under the immediate control of the Emperor and were free of the regional loyalties that had been behind so many military rebellions. WikiZero Özgür Ansiklopedi - Wikipedia Okumanın En Kolay Yolu . Naturally, Konstantinos XIII did not take kindly to these harsh and unfounded words. [18], The ships' main armored belt was 270 mm (11 in) thick amidships and reduced to 160 mm (6.3 in) on either end of the ship. The Roman cause, the restoring of the old empire, was a divinely inspired mission. [15], Twenty-two Canon de 138 mm Modèle 1910 guns were mounted in casemates along the length of the ship's hull. Katso lisää » Konstantinos VI. In March–May 1944, fourteen 40 mm (1.6 in) and twenty-five 20 mm (0.79 in) guns in single mounts were added, and the quadruple 13.2 mm guns were removed. Pre-iconoclastic religious images did survive, and various existing accounts record that icons were preserved by being hidden. Constantine V (Greek: Κωνσταντῖνος, romanized: Konstantinos; July, 718 AD – 14 September 775 AD) was Byzantine emperor from 741 to 775. Ave Dominus Constantinus! Lemnos, sometimes spelled Limnos (Greek: Θ/Κ Λήμνος), was a 13,000 ton Mississippi-class battleship originally built by the United States Navy in 1904–1908. Provence was equipped with eighteen Belleville boilers. He also expropriated monastic property for the benefit of the state or the army. Cognate: 935 basileús – a king (sovereign); often referring to Christ who is "the King of kings" (Rev 19:16), i.e. 688 Theodora, augousta porphyrogennetos (type 1) no. Bretagne subsequently had six new oil-fired boilers to replace the rest of the old coal-fired boilers, and her direct drive turbines were replaced with Parsons geared turbines. The Volantenes, augmented by several sellsword companies and even one of the remaining small Khalassars that called the lands around the ruins of Essaria their home, marched into Roman territory. The named Byzantine agents were then promptly eliminated. Konstantinos (khoảng 865 – 3 tháng 9, 879), đồng hoàng đế cùng Basileios từ ngày 6 tháng 1 năm 868 cho tới khi mất. [23], The British and French negotiated for several hours, and culminated in the British opening fire on the French fleet. She provided gunfire support during the landings before steaming to Britain for a minor refit. [37][38], Constantine constructed a number of notable buildings in the Great Palace of Constantinople, including the Church of the Virgin of the Pharos and the porphyra. Constantine V: So these barbaroi think of themselves as Carthaginians. Get the best deals on Basilius I. und Constantinus, shop the largest numismatic marketplace at MA-Shops.com [25] Two of her main guns were emplaced as coastal batteries outside Toulon. Jesus Christ. The amidships turret was the most heavily armored, with 400 mm (16 in) thick sides. and Cormack, R. Nika Basileus Konstantinos! She was then ordered to join Lorraine in Force X, to be based in Alexandria to operate in concert with the British Mediterranean Fleet. Also called Emperor Constantine XI of Byzantium. Lorraine was disarmed by the British in Alexandria and recommissioned in 1942 to serve with the Free French Naval Forces. [39] The porphyry was reputed to have come from Rome and represented a direct link to the ancient origins of Byzantine imperial authority. Constantine's court was opulent, with splendid buildings, and he consciously promoted the patronage of secular art to replace the religious art that he removed. Be it known that Basileus O.T.O. By his third wife, Eudokia, Constantine V had five sons and a daughter: Italics indicates a junior co-emperor, while underlining indicates a usurper. A fourth was ordered by the Greek Navy, though work was suspended due to the outbreak of the war. Let's Play Left 4 Dead 2 - part 1 - No Mercy - Duration: 38 minutes. [31][32], Constantine was responsible for the creation of a small central army of fully professional soldiers, the imperial tagmata (literally: 'the regiments'). [19][20][21], The synod of Hieria was followed by a campaign to remove images from the walls of churches and to purge the court and bureaucracy of iconodules. To incorporate six turrets with the same arrangement of the earlier vessels, with four on the centerline in superfiring pairs and two wing turrets amidships would have required an additional 3,000 metric tons (3,000 long tons) displacement as well as a significant increase in the length of the hull. [65] The life and actions of Constantine, if freed from the distortion caused by the adulation of his soldiers and the demonisation of iconodule writers, show that he was an effective administrator and gifted general, but he was also autocratic, uncompromising and sometimes needlessly harsh. In the same year he agreed a truce and an exchange of prisoners with the Arabs, freeing his army for offensive campaigning in the Balkans. [10] In 1935, "Lorraine" had her center main battery turret replaced with an aircraft catapult and a hangar for three aircraft. Sale Catalogue: Sternberg 25: 486 . In the 9th century, following the ultimate triumph of the iconodules, Constantine's remains were removed from the imperial sepulchre in the Church of the Holy Apostles. However, to his army and people he was "the victorious and prophetic Emperor". Two weeks later, Bretagne was instead ordered to steam at high speed to Bizerte, to join the Force de Raid with Provence. Elpidios' early reign started off with a brief civil war as several of the counts below him sought greater influence. 1 Basileus Rhomaiôn Konstantinos XI Laskaris was the successor of basileus Rhomaiôn Alexius V Doukas Murtzuphlos; Emperor. Given by God Himself. [2] The total weight of armor was 7,614 t (7,494 long tons; 8,393 short tons). 1 Maria (?) The ships' armament were rounded out by four 450 mm (18 in) torpedo tubes. Das Gesetzbuch Leons III. - Konstantinos XI Palaiologos, Last Roman Emperor Basileus Rhomaiôn Konstantinos XI Laskaris was the son of Manuel Laskaris and Ioanna Karatzaina.Also called Emperor Constantine XI of Byzantium. As Idaho, she was purchased by the Greek Navy in 1914 and renamed Lemnos, along with her sister Mississippi, renamed Kilkis. [13] Lorraine was modified in 1917 to increase the elevation of the guns to 18 degrees, which correspondingly increased the range to 21,100 m (69,200 ft). Horizontal protection consisted of three armored decks; the main deck was 30 to 40 mm (1.2 to 1.6 in) thick. The approval of a petition to promulgate a manumission law in 1236[1] by Basileus Konstantinos XI created a large section of population willing to establish new colonies in the mainland. HELPS Word-studies. Konstantinos VI (771–797) oli Bysantin keisari vuosina 780–797. [34][35][36], The fiscal administration of Constantine was highly competent. Love is the law, love under will She remained in Britain until March 1945, when she bombarded German-held fortresses in northern France. Artabasdos struck against Constantine when their respective troops combined for the intended campaign; a trusted member of Constantine's retinue, called Beser, was killed in the attack. The timeline stops being actual history in 769, which I felt I should mention because our first Emperor (Konstantinos V) has been ruling for a few decades by this point. The church father John Damascene made use of the term 'uncircumscribable' in relation to the depiction of God. New Bru 2,3 Basileus Rhomaiôn Konstantinos XI Laskaris was one of the city's leading defenders against the besieging Latin crusaders, and when the emperor Alexius V slipped away into exile he was proclaimed emperor in April 1204 at … [48][49] The lack of interest Constantine showed in Italian affairs had profound and lasting consequences. In 1936, they joined the non-intervention patrols off Spain during the Spanish Civil War. In following years, Myr would follow the Imperial example as it started to relegate slavery to a much less prevalent role in the economy. [11] He immediately targeted his opponents, having many blinded or executed. Show sidebar. 691 Romanos IV and Eudokia (with Michael, Konstantios and Andronikos) no. The area of cultivated land within the Empire was extended and food became cheaper; between 718 and c. 800 the corn (wheat) production of Thrace trebled. Compare Close. As a stop-gap measure, the Greeks purchased Mississippi and Idaho from the US Navy. [2][3][4][5], Constantine suffered from a chronic medical condition, possibly epilepsy or leprosy; early in his reign this may have been employed by those rebelling against him to question his fitness to be emperor. Telets was assassinated in the aftermath of his defeat. Šandrovskaja, Moscow 1991 [reviewed by N. and W. Seibt, Byzantinoslavica 54, 1993, p. 364] Iconoclasm was later definitively classed as heretical. The Bretagne-class battleships were the first "super-dreadnoughts" built for the French Navy during the First World War.The class comprised three vessels: Bretagne, the lead … und Konstantinos’ V., Forschungen zur byzantini-schen Rechtsgeschichte, X, Frankfurt am Main, 1983; K.E. The Courbet-class ships were the largest possible ships that could fit in existing dockyards and refitting basins. Provence was raised in April 1949 and scrapped. If applicable, further details may be provided. Mississippi was the lead ship of the Mississippi class originally built by the US Navy in 1904–1908. Select options. Manuel Bragationi (Μανουήλ Βαγρατιόνι) (3185-3260) was a prominent Ypostrategos (Major General) of the Ruthene Imperial Army, one of the most important conquerors of the Enosis and Exarchos of the Grand Principate of Thracia, was the leader of the Bragationi Dinasty. Lemnos, sometimes spelled Limnos (Greek: Θ/Κ Λήμνος), was a 13,000 ton Mississippi-class battleship originally built by the United States Navy in 1904–1908. He was also a successful general, not only consolidating the empire's borders, but actively campaigning beyond those borders, both east and west. Constantine's son Leo was the first child born here, and thereby obtained the title porphyrogénnētos (born in the purple) the ultimate accolade of legitimacy for an imperial prince or princess. Of course those who were talking about land war were also talking about the Maginot Line… [43], In 751 he led an invasion into the new Abbasid Caliphate under As-Saffah. Artabasdos and his sons were then publicly blinded and secured in the monastery of Chora on the outskirts of Constantinople. They nevertheless salvaged the ship starting in July 1943. [9][10], The rival emperors bided their time making military preparations. She served as a training ship for much of 1943 until a major refit at the end of the year to prepare her to participate in Operation Dragoon, the invasion of southern France. The Ruthenian Bureau of Intelligence (Ρωμαίων Γραφείο Πληροφοριών, Elliníkon Grafeío Pli̱roforió̱n, RBI) is the national intelligence agency of Ruthenian Empire. A contemporary Byzantine source reported that 208,000 Slavs emigrated from Bulgarian controlled areas into Byzantine territory and were settled in Anatolia. Constantine, relying on the linguistic connection between 'uncircumscribed' and 'incapable of being depicted', argued that the uncircumscribable cannot be legitimately depicted in an image. She was broken up for scrap outside Toulon the following year. Ave Dominus Constantinus! This began the Frankish involvement in Italy that eventually established Pepin's son Charlemagne as Roman Emperor in the West, and also instigated papal temporal rule in Italy with the creation of the Papal States. Birthdate: circa 980. 74.) (trans.) In contrast, the author indicates that iconodules had to make accommodations with imperial iconoclastic policies, and even bestows on Constantine V the conventional religious acclamations: 'Guarded by God' (θεοφύλακτος) and 'Christ-loving emperor' (φιλόχριστος βασιλεὺς). [60] In response, Constantine set out on a new campaign against the Bulgarians, during which he developed carbuncles on his legs. Throwing his lot in with Konstantinos V during the civil war against Strategos Artabasdos of Armenia, he found his loyalty rewarded with the Theme of Sicily in 769 CE. Sale Catalogue: Sternberg 25: 487 . Bretagne was equipped with twenty-four Niclausse boilers; Lorraine had the same number of Guyot du Temple boilers. Given by God Himself. Leon’un ölümünden sonra tahta geçen oğlu Konstantinos V. devrinde tasvir kırıcılık en yüksek seviyesine ulaştı. The ships put in at Mers-el-Kébir and remained there until after the fall of France in June 1940. However, it refused to endorse all of Constantine's policies, which were influenced by the more extremist iconoclasts and were critical of the veneration of Mary, mother of Jesus, and of the saints. The council confirmed the status of Mary as Theotokos (Θεοτόκος), or 'Mother of God', upheld the use of the terms "saint" and "holy" as legitimate, and condemned the desecration, burning, or looting of churches in the quest to suppress icon veneration. They were deployed to guard the southern end of the Adriatic Sea, based in Argostoli and Corfu, to block a possible sortie by the Austro-Hungarian fleet. Death: after 1033. [69][70] In particular, a manuscript written in north-eastern Anatolia concerning miracles attributed to St. Theodore is one of few probably written during or just after the reign of Constantine to survive in its original form; it contains little of the extreme invective common to later iconodule writings. Roman Army: Carthago delenda est! Constantine V: So these barbaroi think of themselves as Carthaginians. She provided gunfire support during Operation Dragoon, the invasion of southern France, and shelled German fortresses in northern France. Nikephoros (Nikephoritzes), sebastophoros doux of Antioch and man of the basileus (type 2) Konstantinos 10. Constantine V (Greek: Κωνσταντῖνος, romanized: Konstantinos; July, 718 AD – 14 September 775 AD) was Byzantine emperor from 741 to 775. Naturally, Konstantinos XIII did not take kindly to these harsh and unfounded words. Bretagne and Provence were similarly modified after the end of the war in 1919. The decadence of the West, coupled with religious disunity and series of usurper generals had weakened the Empire. Gagarin, Michael(2000b) “The Legislation of Demetrius of Phaleron and the Transformation of Athenian Law,” in Demetrius of Phalerum: Text, Translation and Discussion. The three ships largely remained in port, though Provence was repeatedly used to intimidate the government of Greece, which favored Germany during the war. Delivered to man by the same angel who delivered the news of Jesus to the blessed Virgin Mary. Bretagne was laid down at the Arsenal de Brest shipyard in Brest on 22 July 1912. William, W. Fortenbaugh and Schütrumpf, Eckart. Each of the main battery barbettes that housed the lower turret assemblies were armored with 248 mm (9.8 in) thick steel. [6] The Greek Navy ordered a battleship to be named Vasilefs Konstantinos to the same design from AC de St Nazaire Penhoet. The Mississippi and Idaho had already a career in the “great white fleet” before the war, but saw no service during WW1, as instead of being sold for scrap later they were acquired in June 1914, w… [21], After the end of the war, Lorraine served as a gunnery training ship in Toulon. These were initially Gourdou-Leseurre GL-819 and Potez 452 seaplanes, though they were replaced with the Loire 130 flying boat. [11] In January 1919, after the end of the war, Lorraine was sent to Cattaro to guard the Austro-Hungarian fleet. Three months later Constantine defeated Artabasdos' son Niketas and his Armeniac troops at Modrina and headed for Constantinople. I think it’s about time we give our barbarian friends a history lesson on what happened to Carthage. is the first in the world to adapt the full initiation system of the Ordo Templi Orientis for remote initiatory work. [57][58][59], In 775, the Bulgarian ruler Telerig contacted Constantine to ask for sanctuary, saying that he feared that he would have to flee Bulgaria. The Bretagne-class battleships were the first "super-dreadnoughts" built for the French Navy during the First World War. The “O.T.O. Bretagne and Provence were sunk by the British Royal Navy during the Attack on Mers-el-Kébir the following month; Provence was later raised and towed to Toulon, where she was again scuttled in November 1942. Due to his espousal of iconoclasm Constantine was damned in the eyes of contemporary iconodule writers and subsequent generations of Orthodox historians. [51], The successes in the east made it possible to then pursue an aggressive policy in the Balkans. The ships carried seven 47 mm M1885 Hotchkiss quick-firing guns. [50], Constantine sent a number of unsuccessful embassies to the Lombards, Franks and the papacy to demand the restoration of Ravenna, but never attempted a military reconquest or intervention. 689 Konstantinos, basileus no. Telerig enquired as to whom he could trust within Bulgaria, and Constantine foolishly revealed the identities of his agents in the country. Uusi!! He organised the resettlement of part of the local Christian population to imperial territory in Thrace, strengthening the empire's control of this region. Constantine escaped and sought refuge in Amorion, where he was welcomed by the local soldiers, who had been commanded by Leo III before he became emperor. Additionally, the deliberate depopulation of the region beyond the eastern borders created a no-man's land where the concentration and provisioning of Arab armies was made more difficult. In those provinces closest to the seat of government this measure increased the number of strategoi and diminished the resources available to any single one, making rebellion less easy to accomplish. Iconoclasm was not purely an imperial religious conviction, it also had considerable popular support: some of Constantine's actions against the iconodules may have been motivated by a desire to retain the approval of the people and the army. Artabasdos was the stratēgos (military governor) of the Opsikion theme (province) and had effective control of the Armeniac theme. [1], The Bretagne class were replacements for the battleships Carnot, Charles Martel and Liberté. His reign saw a consolidation of Byzantine security from external threats. Kataphractoi get the salt! The cumulative effect of Constantine's repeated offensive campaigns and numerous victories caused considerable instability in Bulgaria, where six monarchs lost their crowns due to their failures in war against Byzantium. [3] This would achieve the same broadside of ten guns, despite the reduction in the number of guns. Constantine's major goal in his eastern campaigns seems to have been to forcibly gather up local Christian populations from beyond his borders in order to resettle Thrace. She joined her sisters in Toulon in June 1919; later that year the ships formed the Eastern Mediterranean Fleet until 1921. 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