The over 450 years of interaction with the Portuguese (making it one of the longest colonial occupations in history) has resulted in a race that is unique and culturally different from the people around them. In 1880, there 29,216 Goans who left Goa. Goa was one of the three Portuguese Provinces in India for 451 years. Some are known by the occupation their ancestors have been practising; Nayak, Borkar, Raikar, Keni, Prabhu, Kamat, Lotlikar, Chodankar, Mandrekar, Naik, Bhat, Tari, Gaude are examples. The Marathi language has played a significant role for Hindus near the northern borders of Goa close to Maharashtra and parts of Novas Conquistas. [2][3] They speak different dialects of Konkani natively. Established in 1560, the inquisition was aimed primarily at Hindus with inquisitions against Indian Muslims, Indian Jews, and others. The end of colonial rule brought a subsequent process of Africanisation and a wave of expulsion of South Asians from Uganda (1972) and Malawi (1974) forced the community to migrate elsewhere. Portuguese language has never been widely spoken in Goa even during the Portuguese rule. A Portuguese colony for over 450 years, the coastal state of Goa gained independence from foreign rule in 1961. Akshay's answer is partially incorrect. Although Goa is prevailing as a legacy of the Portuguese colonial era, in fact, its history dates back to as early as in the antiquity during which facts were mingled with mythology. (estimated). Only a small number of native Muslims remain and are known as Moir, the word is derived from the Portuguese Mouro, which means Moor. The Portuguese conquest of Goa occurred when the governor of Portuguese India Afonso de Albuquerque captured the city in 1510. In British India they were personal butlers or physicians to the English and Parsi elite in India. Portugal had a postal convention with Great Britain, so much mail was probably routed through Bombay and carried on British packets. There are no definitive records of Goan migration prior to the Portuguese conquests in the region of Goa. And Afonso de Albuquerque became the ruler of Goa. Potentially, over a million Indians from Goa, Daman and Diu could come to Britain, since around half of the territories’ two million population can claim Portuguese ancestry. Panaji is the capital and Vasco da Gama is its biggest city out here. 1911: 10 Portuguese, (254 speaking the Portuguese language), 644 Goans. The reason why Goa remains Hindu Majority is because Portuguese did not take the entire Goa at once. It was developed in the Western Iberian Peninsula from Latin, the tongue of the Roman Empire, from which all Romance languages spring. Known for the sandy beaches along its 65-mile coastline, Goa was a Portuguese possession until it became a … As per the 2011 census, Hindus constituted 65%, Christians constituted 27% and Muslims constituted 6% within the state of Goa. It was wealthy and possessed a grand natural harbour. It consisted of several isolated tracts: the territory of Goa; Damao (Daman), with the separated territories of Dadra and Nagar Haveli; and Diu. Goa, state of India, comprising a mainland district on the country’s southwestern coast and an offshore island. The other two Provinces were Damão and Diu. Owing to the wealth gained from the spice trade during the Portuguese domination, Goa came into its golden age. For the next 700 years, Goa was ruled by the succession of Hindu dynasties such as the Shillaharas, the Kadambas, and the Chalukyans. Therefore, the population of Goa in 2020 is expected to be 3.559424 Million + 0.158848 Million = 3.7353088 Million. The "' Goa Inquisition ' was the office of the Inquisition acting in the Indian state of Goa]and the rest of the Portuguese empire in Asia. D. R. SarDesai On 19 December 1961, Goa was rid of the 450-year Portuguese rule after a thirty-six-hour Indian military operation. Efforts to suppress Islam were made by the Portuguese. All Goans were educated in Portuguese in the past when Goa was an overseas province of Portugal. The operation ended with the surrender of the Portuguese Governor General Vassalo da Silva. The city was evangelized by all religious orders, since all of them had their headquarters there. At the time of the arrival of the Portuguese in India, Goa was under the rule of the Sultan of Bijapur, for whom Goa was the second most important city. Panaji is the state's capital, while Vasco da Gama is its largest city. So Afonso de Albuquerque came to Goa and as expected all the Hindu population supported the Portuguese and the Portuguese defeated the forces of Ibrahim Adil Shah. Goanese is an incorrect usage for Goans. Portuguese postmarks are known from 1854 when a post office was opened in Goa. For centuries, Goa was considered the Rome of the Orient. Goa is situated on an island at the mouth of the Mandovi River. Owing to the wealth gained from the spice trade during the Portuguese domination, Goa came into its golden age. In 1961 India invaded these three territories, liberated and assimilated them into its domain. Sizable numbers of Goan Hindus in 17th-18th centuries fled to Mangalore and Canara, inorder to flee from the conversion efforts. this is due to the influx of ethnic Marathi people and to the area since the late 20th Century.[9]. The Konkani spoken by the Catholics is notably different from those of the Hindus, since it has a lot of Portuguese influence in its vocabulary. The town extended its influence over a vast territory, which included the whole Malay Peninsula. [16], During the Napoleonic Wars Goa was occupied by the British Raj, and many of their vessels were anchored in the Morumugão harbour. The history of the Portuguese in Goa was similar to the British in India. Muçulmano was the word later used in Portuguese to identify them.[12]. Vulgar Latin evolved into the Galician–Portuguese language. The Indian diaspora have been assimilated with other Konkani people of Maharashtra, Karnataka and Kerala. The educated class found it difficult to get jobs within Goa due to the high influx of non-Goans into Goa, and this encouraged many of them to move to the Gulf states. Migrations from 1800s-1950s (Second Phase), Migration from 1960s-Present (Current Phase). Gauree Malkarnekar (2019). Learn more about Portuguese India in … [16] The Anglo-Portuguese Treaty of 1878 played an important role in speeding the emigration of Goans in the latter half of the 19th Century, since it gave the British the authority to construct the West of India Portuguese Railway, which connected the Velhas Conquistas to the Bombay Presidency. Until 1312, Goa was controlled by the Muslims, and it began to rise as an important landing place for ships carrying horses to Hampi. [21] By 1954, this number rose to 180,000. Rajesh Ghadge (2015), The story of Goan Migration. Goa's Decline Several factors contributed to Goa's decline as a Portuguese territory throughout the 17th Century. From 1540 onwards, Goa Inquisition was established. [18] Immigration into Africa came to end after the Decolonisation of Africa, during the 1950-60s. Goa was the capital of a large Portuguese eastern empire and was called "Rome of the East". In Africa, they pioneered in medicine. In the meantime, the Portuguese also took the occasion to spread Christianity – the result the expansion, the consolidation of Portuguese cultures, languages and other legacies of values of the Christian world into Goa. It became the largest city in the East, boasting of no less than 300 churches within town, and having a population of over 40,000 people. Konkani was suppressed for official documentation use only not for unofficial use under the Portuguese governance, playing a minor part in education of the past generations. However, the evident history of Goa is that it was part of the Mauryan Empire (the 3rd century B.C). After Karnataka & Maha, UP gives Goa the most migrants, "The origin and development of Konkani language", "Dona Paula's forgotten British cemetery gets a new lease of life", Church and Convent of St. Francis of Assisi, National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Goans&oldid=999776425, "Related ethnic groups" needing confirmation, Articles using infobox ethnic group with image parameters, Articles containing Konkani (macrolanguage)-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, (Some notable Goans) Despite centuries of domination exercised by Portugal, unlike what happened in other Portuguese colonies elsewhere, the Portuguese language failed to spread among the vast majority of the population, remaining as the language of administration and a small literate elite. On December 17, 1961, Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru then decided to order the military invasion and liberation of Goa. A small number of Goans moved to Burma, to join the already established community in Pegu (now Bago). At the time of the Portuguese arrival in the Asian seas, Malacca thanks to its strategic position on the strait bearing the same name, was a remarkable trading center for the trade and shunting of spices. Goa Population 2020 –3.7353088 Million. This is the truth that the "pacifist" Nehru refused to face and destroyed in 1961. Goa was not among the cities Albuquerque had received orders to conquer: he had only been ordered by the Portuguese king to capture Hormuz, Aden, and Malacca. It was the headquarters of the Catholic Church in the Orient. Many Hindu temples were converted into churches with mass conversion to Christianity with over 300 churches for a population of 40,000. The answer is: Some are, some aren’t. Discussion The data presented above suggests the various territories of Portuguese India differed substantially with respect to the demographics of African slaves and their social embedding. Ethnic Goans are predominantly Christians followed by Hindus and a small Muslim community. On the Ships and Cruise liners they were sailors, stewards, chefs, musicians and dancers. They speak different dialects of Konkani natively. One of the those communities is the Luso-Goans whose story is connected with the arrival and conquering of Goa by the Portuguese explorers and Iberian sailors. It became the largest city in the East, boasting of no less than 300 churches within town, and having a population of over 40,000 people. Since the Second Phase of migrations, the Goans have had a variety of professions. Many had applied and were granted Portuguese passports in order to obtain a European residence. Available statistics show that in 1950 Christians were 51.70 % of the population; in 1960 when the last Portuguese census took place, they were 53.60 % of the population. The population was roughly 200,000 by 1543. [4], A copperplate dating to the early 4th century found in Shiroda, mentions one Devaraja of the Gominas, which is a reference to the Bhoja king ruling from Chandor, who is hailed as the ruler of the Goans or Gominas.[5]. A small minority of Goans are descendants of the Portuguese, speak Portuguese and are of Luso-Indian ethnicity,[6] however a number of native Christians also used Portuguese as their first language prior to 1961. Today, the Goan people still retain a distinctive Southern flavor, yet, combine their own native culture, making Goa one of the multi-cultural showcases in India. Few remnants, if any, of the pre-Portuguese period remain at Old Goa. Goa is one of the wealthiest states with a GDP in excess of two times that of the National average. However the entire liturgy of the Catholic church is solely in the Latin script. It was also the vice imperial seat of the Portuguese Empire of the East. After the Portuguese Conquest of Goa in 1510 and its subsequent rule by Portugal, Goa's indigenous population underwent a large-scale conversion to Christianity.. In 1971, they were 33.97 % while Hindus were 62.42 % of Goa’s population. Another destination for mainly the Catholic community, was Africa. It was also the vice imperial seat of … During the mid-16th century, the Portuguese colony of Goa, especially Velha Goa, was the center of Christianisation in the East. [11] Hindus in Goa are divided into many different castes and sub-castes, known as Jatis. In the past Goykanadi, Modi, Kannada and Persian scripts were also used which later fell into disuse owing to many social, political and religious reasons.[7][8]. Goans (Konkani: गोंयकार, Romi lipi: Goenkar, Portuguese: Goesas) is the demonym used to describe the people native to Goa, India, who form an ethno-linguistic group resulting from the assimilation of Indo-Aryan, Dravidian, Indo-Portuguese and Austro-Asiatic ethnic and/or linguistic ancestries. At that time, Malacca was ruled by a Muslim Sultan. The Catholics display Portuguese influence in the form of a hierarchy due to being for 451 years of close interaction with the Portuguese as an overseas province. A permanent settlement was established by the Portuguese in 1510 in Velha Goa (Old Goa), when the Portuguese admiral Afonso de Albuquerque defeated the ruling Bijapur king Yusuf Adil Shah. [15] There was a self imposed ban on Goan Hindus on overseas travel, imposed by the Dharamasastras, due to the belief that crossing salt water would corrupt oneself. Goans use Devanagari (official) and Latin script (liturgical and historical) for education as well as communication (personal, formal and religious). A relatively small Goan-Portuguese mixed race population resulted from Portuguese colonisation, one estimate being that less than 100 mestiço families left in 1961 when Portugal lost the colony. They were soon followed by the newly converted Goan Catholics, who fled the Goa Inquisition. It is interesting to know that while the Portuguese ruled Goa, their country itself was ruled by Spain from the late 16th century for a period of 60 years. Portuguese is the mother tongue of about 170 million people, mainly in Portugal and the Portuguese islands in the Atlantic (approximately 11 million speakers); in Brazil (about 154 million speakers); and in Portugal's former abroad provinces in Africa and Asia (approximately 5 million speakers). Goa is a beautiful state situated in India and it is bordered by Karnataka as well as Maharashtra.It is the smallest state as per area and the fourth smallest as per population. [17] These ships were serviced by native Goans, who then left for British India once the ships had moved on. Modern Standard European Portuguese (português padrão or português continental) is based o… Goan Hindus refer to themselves as Konkane (Devanagari Konkani: कोंकणे), meaning the residents of an area broadly identified as Konkan. Portuguese names are common among the Christians. Copyright ©2003 - 2018 GoaHolidayHomes.com All rights reserved. The capital is Panaji, on the north-central coast of the mainland district. There are minuscule numbers of the Goan diaspora now converted to Sikhism, Buddhism as well as a few Atheists. The Portuguese rule in Goa lasted for as long as 450 years. Goans across the globe refer to the publication, Goan Voice for news about members from their community. [20], Currently it is estimated that there are around 600,000 Goans living outside India.[22]. [13], Until the early 1970s there were substantial populations of Goans in the Middle East, Africa and Europe. The period is known as the 1580 Portuguese succession crisis and is known to be a result of the death of a young king Sebastian of Portugal. The Caste system is still followed, but to a lesser degree as compared to other Indians. As per the 1851 census, Christians constituted 64.5% and Hindus 35.5% of the Goan population. [14] It was also during the latter part this period, when Goans (mainly Catholics) started traveling overseas. The area has a diverse history resulting in a rich diversity of ethnicities. [13] There were flights from Goa to escape taxation as well as epidemics during the same time period. Goans have been migrating all along the Konkan Coast and across the world for the last six centuries because of socio-religious and economic reasons. They primarily moved to the cities of Bombay (now Mumbai), Poona (now Pune), Calcutta (now Kolkata)[18] and Karachi. 1881: 19 Portuguese, 36 Goans, (261 speaking the Portuguese language), 9.410 Luso – Indians and Eurasians. You should make your question more clear, like “Do people born in Goa have Portuguese Citizenship?” or “Are people born in Goa, Portuguese Citizens?” Let’s assume that’s what you are asking. [10] Within Goa, there has been a steady decline of Christianity due to Goan emigration, and a steady rise of Hinduism and Islam, due to non-Goan immigration. The state of Goa became the center of Christianisation in the east. Portuguese is still spoken by a number of Goans, though it is mainly restricted to upper class Christian families and the older generation. During their 450 years occupation they established the Inquisition and only allowed Catholicism. While the Portuguese speaking Goans never constituted more than a handful of the population, the Portuguese influence over Goa still exists to some extent in architecture, food, language, music, dance, tradition, and culture. By the late 15th century, upon the discovery of a new route to India by the bank of Portuguese adventurers, including Vasco de Gama, Goa became the ideal base for the seafaring Portuguese who determined to overcome the manipulation of the spice route from the East. They use their village names to identify their clans, some of them use titles. There are distinct Bamonn, Chardó, Gauddo and Sudir communities in Goa that is mainly endogamous. Various dialects of Konkani spoken by the Goans which include Bardezkari, Saxtti, Pednekari and Antruz. [23] Many have also been working on Oil Rigs. [19] The Goans who moved to mainland India were of both, Christian as well as Hindu, origin.[20]. Cloister of the Franciscan Igreja de Santo António. To conclude it, the population of Goa in 2020 as per estimates = 3.7353088 Million. Goans are multilingual, but mainly speak the Konkani language, a Prakrit based language belonging to the Southern group of Indo-Aryan Languages. 48 Goan Catholics permanently migrated to Portugal in 18th Century. Despite its decayed power due to the competition of the British, French, and Dutch as well as its inadequate ability to control all over its far-flung territory, the Portuguese continue to dominate Goa until the 20th Century. There were a series of efforts from the Indian Government to discuss with the Portuguese on the withdrawal from Goa, but the issue seemed to be intractable due to the Portuguese's ignorance. Goans (Konkani: गोंयकार, Romi lipi: Goenkar, Portuguese: Goesas) is the demonym used to describe the people native to Goa, India, who form an ethno-linguistic group resulting from the assimilation of Indo-Aryan, Dravidian, Indo-Portuguese and Austro-Asiatic ethnic and/or linguistic ancestries. Though miniscule, there were migrations of Goans to other parts of the global Portuguese Empire, such as Lisbon, Ormuz, Muscat, Timor, Brasil, Malaca, Pegu, and Colombo. Many Goans have settled in the Gulf, the U.K. and the Greater Angloshpere as well as the former Portuguese territories, including Portugal itself. The first recorded instances of significant emigrations of Goans could be traced back to the arrival of the Portuguese in Goa. It then broke off into Galician and Portuguese after the incorporation of Galicia into Spain and the independent development of Portugal. Portuguese India, name used for those parts of India which were under Portuguese rule from 1505 to December 1961. One reason being that the Goan people were not a distinct ethnic group as yet. Many Catholic families also share Indo-Portuguese ancestry and some Catholic Goans count themselves as 'mestizo' or a mixed-race. Conversion seems to play little role in the demographic change. Some notable Goans (including those of, Note: This page is for information on the ethnic Goan people (many in diaspora), and not residents living within the Indian State of Goa, This page was last edited on 11 January 2021, at 22:22. After the Invasion of Goa (1961) by the Republic of India, there has been a steep rise in the number of emigrants of Goan origin. There have also, historically, been Goans in former British colonies of Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania, and Portuguese colonies of Mozambique and Angola. 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